1. Table of Contents (ToC)
  2. Introduction
  3. Front end
  4. Database design
  5. Conclusion

Database design


Database


MySQL relational database management system (RDMS) is used to develop the system. This is currently the widely used RDMS in the web environment along with PHP. The data is stored in to tabular format for better management. Most real world data is relational and only an RDBMS allows relationships to be accurately depicted. Relationships eliminate duplicate and redundant data; this improves data integrity.

Naming convention


Table is a structure of storing records. A number of records make up a table, which represents each entity of the system. Tables consist of fields commonly known as attributes. Two types of tables are used in this system, the regular and reference tables. The names of the entities and the attributes are named in such a way that it represents what type of value it is storing. Such as if the table stores additional information of former faculty member, the name of the table is former_faculty_additional_info_tbl. The fields/attributes are also named similarly, such as last_name, first_name, email, etc.

Entity Relationship diagram


Entity Relationship Diagram (ERP) is used to depict the relationship between the tables through a common field. This improves the data integrity and also easy querying. There are three types of relationship, namely one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. In a one-to-one (1:1) relationship, one record in the first table is related to zero or one record in the second table and vice versa. In a one-to-many (1:M) relationship, one record in the first table is related to zero or more records in the second table and a record in the second table is related back to only one record in the first table. In a many-to-many (M:M) relationship, one record in the first table is related to zero or more records in the second table and one record in the second table is related to zero or more records in the first table. This special case is implemented by inserting a third table, the cross-reference table, between the two tables that represent the M:M relationship.

Data normalization


The challenge of developing a system is to reduce data redundancy. Using a RDMS makes this easy through the different types of relationship. There are 6 levels of normalization. Usually 3 levels are sufficient enough for most of the databases. The relationship between the entities within the system has been normalized to reduce data redundancy.